1. Tabagari, I.; Kurashvili, M.; Varazi, T.; Adamia, G.; Gigolashvili, G.; Pruidze, M.; Chokheli, L.; Khatisashvili, G.; von Fragstein und Niemsdorff, P. Application of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis against Chemical Pollution of Water. Water 2019, 11, 1759.


    The basis of phytoremediation technology for cleaning chemically polluted water was developed in the framework of the presented work. This technology is based on the ability of blue-green alga Arthrospira platensis to eliminate different environmental toxicants from water. This technological approach was conducted for the following pollutants: 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and cesium ions. The effectiveness of the technology was tested in model experiments, which were carried out in glass containers (volume 40 L). In particular, the different concentrations of alga biomass with the aforementioned pollutants were incubated with permanent illumination conditions and air barbotage, at a temperature of 25 °C. The results of the model experiments showed that after two weeks from the start of remediation Arthrospiraeffectively cleaned artificially polluted waters. Particularly in the case of TNT 56 mg/L concentration, the effect of water remediation was 97%. In the case of DDT 10 mg/L concentration, the degree of cleaning was 90%. Similar results were obtained in the case of 100 mg/L concentration of cesium ions. Thus, the model experiments confirmed that the alga Arthrospira effectively removed tested pollutants from water. That is the basis of phytoremediation technology.


    phytoremediation; water pollution; DDT; TNT; heavy metals; cesium ions

  2. Ushanov, L.; Lasareishvili, B.; Janashia, I.; Zautner, A.E. Application of Campylobacter jejuni Phages: Challenges and Perspectives. Animals 2020, 10, 279.
    Bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant and diverse biological entities in the biosphere. Due to the rise of multi-drug resistant bacterial strains during the past decade, phages are currently experiencing a renewed interest. Bacteriophages and their derivatives are being actively researched for their potential in the medical and biotechnology fields. Phage applications targeting pathogenic food-borne bacteria are currently being utilized for decontamination and therapy of live farm animals and as a biocontrol measure at the post-harvest level. For this indication, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several phage products targeting Listeria sp., Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. Phage-based applications against Campylobacter jejuni could potentially be used in ways similar to those against Salmonella sp. and Listeria sp.; however, only very few Campylobacter phage products have been approved anywhere to date. The research on Campylobacter phages conducted thus far indicates that highly diverse subpopulations of C. jejuni as well as phage isolation and enrichment procedures influence the specificity and efficacy of Campylobacter phages. This review paper emphasizes conclusions from previous findings instrumental in facilitating isolation of Campylobacter phages and improving specificity and efficacy of the isolates. View Full-Text

  3. Al Sidawi, R.; Urushadze, T.; Ploeger, A. Changes in Dairy Products Value Chain in Georgia. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5894.
    The livestock sector, as a part of the traditional food system in Georgia, occupies a considerable portion of the national economy. Though smallholder farmers are the key suppliers at the primary stage in the food value chain, the empowerment of smallholder farmers in the dairy production system in Georgia is a questionable matter. This research study reports the results of changes in the dairy sector in Georgia (Caucasus) after becoming independent from the Soviet Union (literature survey) and how these changes are seen by experts in the dairy value chain. In addition, this study aimed to look in-depth at the dynamics of the value chain of dairy in Georgia and examine the current dairy production policies. Qualitative research was applied as the methodology for expert interviews in 2019. The findings showed the difficulties experienced by the local and national dairy market sectors in Georgia nowadays. Where these difficulties were analyzed by the parameters of the value chain, it states the impact of the current regulations and policies on the safety and the quality of dairy production in the country and the depth of social, economic, and ethical impacts on the marketing of dairy products for smallholders. Furthermore, the Sustainable Development Goals on the dairy value chain are described. View Full-Text
  4. Tabagari, I., Chokheli, L., Adamia, G. et al. The Effectiveness of Arthrospira platensis for the Purification of Copper-Contaminated Water. Water Air Soil Pollut 231, 470 (2020).


    The presented work is devoted to the study of the ecological potential of Spirulina Arthrospira platensis to absorb copper ions from the water polluted by given heavy metal. The obtained data reveal the ability of Spirulina in a short time, in particular for 3 days to diminish 70% of Cu2+ ions of the initial incubation medium (100 ppm). The physiological parameters of Spirulina under the influence of copper on algae were also studied the highest concentration of Cu2+ ions cause inhibition of biomass accumulation by 15% and decrease of chlorophyll content by 30%. The presented results underline the capacity of Arthrospira platensis for the purification of water contaminations by copper.

  5. Khakhviashvili K, Ploeger A, Didebulidze K, Oshkhereli T (2020) Is Antibiotic Resistance a Problem for the Dairy Industry in Georgia? J Dairy Res Tech 3: 018.


    Antibiotics Resistance (AMR) is a global threat to human health, agriculture, and global ecosystems. The Multisectoral and global answer is required to reduce the risk of antibiotics resistance spreading all around the globe. Nevertheless, Antibiotics resistance issues are not addressed and investigated in Georgia. There is a significant knowledge gap concerning the spreading of antibiotic resistance in the Georgian agriculture and dairy sector, which generates a big part of animal origin food in Georgia. The article’s objective is to review available information about the Georgian dairy sector and raise a question about whether current practices increase the risk of antimicrobial resistance spreading. Review highlights Georgian dairy sectored constraints such as usage of outdated practices and methods in cattle feeding, breeding, milking, and welfare. No control over veterinary medicine sales and usage. Food safety risks are connected to a lack of control of small household farmers. Researches done in the human health sector indicated antibiotic development resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, which is one of the familiar sources of bovine mastitis. Antibiotics resistance in dairy farming is not yet researched. However, National Food Agency monitoring results on the presence of prohibited antibiotics residual in cattle milk and blood indicates that there are increased risks of antibiotics resistance bacteria development in dairy farming and spreading in the environment through the food chain.

    Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Dairy; Dairy sector; Georgia, Staphylococcus aureus